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The Cost-Based Optimizer (CBO)

Oracle Tips by Burleson Consulting

Oracle’s cost-based optimizer was created to provide a more sophisticated alternative to rule-based optimization because Oracle recognized that SQL optimization could be more effective of the optimizer was aware of details about the data in the tables and indexes. This data includes:

  • Table data
    • The number of rows
    • The number of physical data blocks
  • Index data
    • The number of unique values in the index
    • The distribution of values within the index
    • The selectivity of the index
    • The index clustering factor

While the goal of adding statistical information was noble, Oracle underestimated the complexity of creating an optimizer that would always choose the fastest execution plan. The early releases of the CBO in Oracle7 often made less than optimal execution decisions, and while the official policy of Oracle was for customers to use the CBO, Oracle continued to utilize the RBO for their own Oracle Application products.

The CBO and Statistics

The introduction of the CBO also brought forth a very important change in SQL theory. Prior to the CBO, the premise of Oracle was that a single execution plan could be derived that would always find the optimal execution plan.

When the CBO was introduced, Oracle provided a new SQL utility called analyze that would compute or estimate the statistics for an Oracle table or index. Oracle also recommended that tables and indexes be re-analyzed whenever important characteristics of the table or index have changed. Hence, Oracle professionals were quite upset to find that the execution plans for their SQL changed whenever they re-analyzed their database objects. By tying the execution plans to the characteristics of the data, an SQL statement might have a different execution plan every time new statistics were generated. This made SQL tuning quite difficult.

Gathering statistics for the CBO

Oracle offers two method for collecting table and index statistics, the compute and estimate methods. Here is an example of the syntax:

analyze table customer compute statistics;
analyze table customer estimate statistics sample 5000 rows;

There has been a great deal of debate about whether it is better to compute or estimate statistics. Note that there are documented problems when sampling less than a 25-30% sample of the rows in a table. This is due to the way Oracle calculates row counts. Contrary to early documentation, row counts are done using a average row size verses total occupied blocks and not a full count. In tables of several million rows, the row counts can be off by as much as 15% if a sample of less than 25% was used for the analyze.

The downside to running compute statistics is that it is very time consuming and resource intensive. The downside to running estimate statistics is that you need to be careful to get a statistically valid sample. In experiments using estimate statistics it has been found that a sample as low as 50 rows will generate a valid value for num_rows in the Remote DBA_tables view. However, most professional Oracle Remote DBAs will estimate statistics based on a sample of 5,000 rows. This does not take much execution time, and generates valid statistics.

The CBO and column histogram data

The CBO also allows you to generate special statistics in cases where a data column contains highly skewed data. The syntax example appears below:

analyze table
   customer
estimate statistics
   sample 500 rows
for all indexed columns;

Column histogram information is only useful in cases of low cardinality columns (e.g. bitmapped indexes) where the data is highly skewed. For example, suppose we have a bitmapped index on USA state abbreviations. This index will only have 50 distinct values, and we would not need column histograms unless the data was not evenly distributed.

Let’s take a simple example. Suppose that we have a state_abbr_idx on our customer table, with customers in all 50 states. The following query is used to fetch the customer list by state:

select
   customer_full_name,
   customer_full_address
from
   customer
where
   customer_full_address.state_abbr = ‘:var1:’;

However, this query should not have a stable execution plan if the data is skewed. Let’s assume that we have a disproportional amount of customer in North Carolina, with more than 60% of the rows for customers in North Carolina. To be effective, the CBO should invoke a full-table scan when the where clause of the query asks for customers in North Carolina. However, the CBO should invoke an index range scan is cases where the identical query asks for customers in Nevada. The use of column histograms will tell the CBO to consider the distribution of data when formulating the execution plan.

Also note that the state_abbr is coded by using a host variable. Normally a query with a host variable will be located in the library cache as immediately re-usable. However, the presence of the column histograms will cause the Oracle optimizer to insert the column values and re-evaluate the query against the histogram data. This can add significant overhead to this query because it must be re-parsed every time that it is executed.

Column histograms should only be calculated for columns with a small number of distinct vales where some column values represent a disproportional amount of the rows. Histograms are time consuming to calculate and may cause excessive re-parsing of the SQL in the library cache. Because all indexed columns on a table will never be skewed, be careful to NEVER use the all indexed columns clause when computing histograms.

The CBO and hints

Because of the shortcomings of the CBO, Oracle began to offer hints that could be placed within an SQL statement to change the default CBO execution plan. The existence of hints confirm that the CBO does not always make the best choice of the execution plan, and we would expect the amount of hints to decrease as the CBO became more sophisticated. However, up to Oracle8i, the CBO continued to add new hints, and the list of hints now contains dozens of hints. When the CBO finally becomes sophisticated enough to always make the best execution plan, we can expect hints to become obsolete with the CBO.

Execution plan persistence

Oracle eventually recognized that execution plans should be static, especially after a SQL tuning professional has found the optimal execution plan. Until Oracle8i, the SQL tuning professional has to tune the SQL, locate the SQL source code and add hints to ensure that the same execution plan was always generated.

With the introduction of Oracle8i, an exciting new feature was introduced called optimizer plan stability. Optimizer plan stability allows for the SQL tuning professional to store an outline for the execution of an SQL statement. This stored outline has the dual purpose of reducing the parsing time required to generate the execution plan and to ensure that the same execution plan is always generated. This topic is so important to SQL tuning that we have dedicated Chapter 13 to this topic.


This is an excerpt from "Oracle High-Performance SQL Tuning" by Donald K. Burleson, published by Oracle Press.


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