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Database Startup and Shutdown

Oracle Tips by Burleson Consulting

When the instance and database are created using DBCA in Linux or UNIX, the oratab in the /etc or /var/opt/oracle directory is updated to have a listing similar to:

galinux1:/var/oracle/OraHome2:N

If you manually create the database, you should edit the oratab file to include a similar entry for your database SID.

The listing in the oratab file consists of three parts, divided by colons. The first part is the SID for the instance; in the above example, this is galinux1. The second portion is the value for the ORACLE_HOME symbol for that instance; the final value is either Y or N. The third value determines if the database is started and stopped during startup and shutdown of the host. The oratab is read by the startup files in the init.d directories, and the startup files execute the $ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbstart and $ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbshut files on UNIX.

On NT 4.0, startup and shutdown are generally handled by the oradim program. Whether databases are started or stopped automatically is decided by several registry entries in the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE-SOFTWARE-ORACLE-HOMEn registry tree. The registry entries on NT4.0 SP6 are:

ORA_sid_AUTOSTART. Either "TRUE" or "FALSE."

ORA_sid_SHUTDOWNTYPE. One of three options: "i" for immediate, "n" for normal, or "a" for abort; the default is "i."

ORA_sid_SHUTDOWN_TIMEOUT. Set to seconds to wait for Oracle to shut down; defaults to 30, at which time the system shuts down anyway.

The oradim program is used to start, stop, and maintain the databases on NT 4.0 and W2K. By specifying command sets in .CMD files, different actions can be taken in regard to the Oracle database system. For example, the startdb.cmd file for an instance with a SID of TEST, an INTERNAL password of ORACLE, might look like this:

c:\orant\bin\oradim      -startup -sid TEST -usrpwd ORACLE
                      -pfile
c:\oracle1\ortest1\admin\pfile\initORTEST1.ora
                      -starttype SRVC, INST 

A shutdown script for the same instance would look like this:

c:\orant\bin\oradim      -shutdown -sid TEST
                           -SURPWD ORACLE
                           -SHTTYPE  SRVC, INST
                           -SHUTMODE a

Startup  

The database is open and ready for use after being created. Once the operating system is shut down, or the database is shut down, it must be started before it can be accessed.

UNIX or LINUX Startup

On UNIX or Linux systems, the Remote DBA has to perform the following steps to ensure the instance and database startup each time the system starts up:

1.        Log in as root.

2.        Edit the /etc/oratab file. Change the last field for your $ORACLE_SID to Y.

3.        Add a line similar to the following to your /etc/init.d/Dbora file or its equivalent on your version of UNIX (it may be in an rc.d directory instead of an init.d directory); be sure you use the full path to the dbstart procedure.

      su - oracle_owner -c /users/oracle/bin/dbstart

An example of a full Dbora script is shown in Listing 2.3.

#!/bin/sh
#
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/Dbora
# Description: Starts and stops the Oracle database and listeners
# See how we were called.
case "$1" in
  start)
        echo -n "Starting Oracle Databases: "
        echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
        date +"! %T %a %D : Starting Oracle Databases as part of system up." >>
/var/log/oracle
        echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
        su - oracle -c /users/oracle/9.0.1/bin/dbstart >> /var/log/oracle
       
echo "Done."
        echo -n "Starting Oracle Listeners: "
        su - oracle -c "/users/oracle/9.0.1/bin/lsnrctl start" >> /var/log/oracle
        echo "Done."
        echo ""
        echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
        date +"! %T %a %D : Finished." >> /var/log/oracle
        echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
        touch /var/lock/subsys/oracle
        ;;
  stop)
        echo -n "Shutting Down Oracle Listeners: "
        echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
        date +"! %T %a %D : Shutting Down Oracle Databases as part of system down." >>
/var/log/oracle
        echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
        su - oracle -c "/users/oracle/9.0.1/bin/lsnrctl stop" >> /var/log/oracle
       
echo "Done."
        rm -f /var/lock/subsys/oracle
        echo -n "Shutting Down Oracle Databases: "
        su - oracle -c /users/oracle/9.0.1/bin/dbshut >> /var/log/oracle
        echo "Done."
        echo ""
        echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
        date +"! %T %a %D : Finished." >> /var/log/oracle
        echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
        ;;
  restart)
        echo -n "Restarting Oracle Databases: "
        echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
        date +"! %T %a %D : Restarting Oracle Databases as part of system up." >>
/var/log/oracle
        echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
        su - oracle -c /user/oracle/9.0.1/bin/dbshut >> /var/log/oracle
        su - oracle -c /user/oracle/9.0.1/bin/dbstart >> /var/log/oracle
       
echo "Done."
        echo -n "Restarting Oracle Listeners: "
        su - oracle -c "/user/oracle/9.0.1/bin/lsnrctl stop" >> /var/log/oracle
        su - oracle -c "/user/oracle/9.0.1/bin/lsnrctl start" >> /var/log/oracle
        echo "Done."
        echo ""
        echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
        date +"! %T %a %D : Finished." >> /var/log/oracle
        echo "----------------------------------------------------" >> /var/log/oracle
       
touch /var/lock/subsys/oracle
        ;;
  *)
        echo "Usage: oracle {start|stop|restart}"
        exit 1
esac

Listing 2.3 Example Dbora script.

To call the above scripts, entries are needed in the appropriate init.d or rc.d directories corresponding to the run level at which Oracle needs to be stopped or started. Usually start in levels 2, 3, and 4, and shut down in 0 and 6.

To accomplish this, you will place links from the rc2.d, rc3.d, rc4.d, rc0.d, and rc6.d subdirectories to the Dbora script. The links are usually of the form SnDbora or KnDbora, where n is an integer corresponding to the order of other start or stop calls are present: S means start the database, K means kill it. Typically, you will want an S99Dbora entry in levels 2, 3, and 4 directories, and a K01Dbora entry in levels 0 and 6. The commands lsnrctl, dbstart, and dbshut may have to be full-path’ed depending on your environment. The startup links are formed with these commands:

ln -s /etc/init.d/Dbora /etc/init.d/rc2.d/S99Dbora
ln -s /etc/init.d/Dbora /etc/init.d/rc3.d/S99Dbora
ln -s /etc/init.d/Dbora /etc/init.d/rc4.d/S99Dbora

One the script Dbora is in place and the links have been created on Linux, you must run the insserv command to tell the various configuration scripts where the Dbora file is located. The insserv command is available from the root user.

If you get an error on Linux such as:

        /etc/init.d/Dbora: bad interpreter: Permission denied,

this indicates that the program was written in a Windows environment and was not properly converted to UNIX format. I suggest getting a program called dos2unix; at the time of this writing it was available at http://www.bastet.com/software/software.html. Also, be sure you have the proper execute privileges set on the scripts.

Manual Startup

On all systems, manual startup is accomplished via the supplied scripts, through the SVRMGR, or, in the later Oracle8i and Oracle9i releases, through the SQLPLUS program. To start up a database using SVRMGR or SQLPLUS, use the following procedure. The command used is STARTUP; its format follows.

STARTUP  [RESTRICTED] [FORCE] [PFILE=filename] [SPFILE=filename]
          [EXCLUSIVE or PARALLEL] (pre 9i only)
          [MOUNT or OPEN] dbname
          [NOMOUNT]
          [RECOVER]

1.        Log in to SVRMGR as INTERNAL or in to SQLPLUS as SYS or as "/" using the AS SYSRemote DBA qualifier.

2.        Issue one of the following commands:

a.        STARTUP OPEN dbname PFILE=filename. This command starts the instance and opens the database named dbname using the parameter file specified by the filename following the PFILE= clause. This starts up the database in the default, EXCLUSIVE mode.

b.        STARTUP RESTRICT OPEN dbname PFILE=filename. This command starts the instance and opens the database named dbname using the parameter file specified by the filename following the PFILE= clause. This starts up the database in the restricted-only mode (only users with RESTRICTED SESSION privilege can log in).

c.        STARTUP NOMOUNT. This command starts the instance, but leaves the database dismounted and closed. Cannot be used with EXCLUSIVE, MOUNT, or OPEN. Normally, this command is used only when creating a database. There are some maintenance activities that require the database to be in NOMOUNT, but generally it is only used with database creation.

d.        STARTUP MOUNT. This command starts the instance and mounts the database, but leaves it closed.

e.        STARTUP OPEN dbname PARALLEL. This command starts the instance, opens the database, and puts the database in PARALLEL mode for multi-instance use in pre-Oracle8 versions. In Oracle8, simply setting the initialization parameter PARALLEL_SERVER to TRUE starts the instance in parallel server (shared) mode. In Oracle9i, the parameter CLUSTER_SERVER set to TRUE starts RAC. PARALLEL is obsolete in Oracle8. PARALLEL_SERVER is obsolete in Oracle9i. It cannot be used with EXCLUSIVE or NOMOUNT or if the INIT.ORA parameter SINGLE_PROCESS is set to TRUE. The SHARED parameter is obsolete in Oracle8.

f.          STARTUP OPEN dbname EXCLUSIVE. This command is functionally identical to a, above. It cannot be specified if PARALLEL or NOMOUNT is also specified in pre-Oracle8 versions. EXCLUSIVE is obsolete in Oracle8. If PARALLEL_SERVER—or, in Oracle9i CLUSTER_SERVER--is FALSE, the database defaults to EXCLUSIVE.

g.        The FORCE parameter can be used with any of the above options to force a shutdown and restart of the database into that mode. This is not normally done and is only used for debugging and testing.

h.        The RECOVER option can be used to immediately start recovery of the database on startup if desired.

Errors that can occur during a startup include missing files, improperly specified PFILE path or name, or corrupted file errors. If any of these occur, the database will immediately shut down. Using OEM (Oracle Enterprise Manager) you must log in as an account that has been assigned the SYSOPER or SYSRemote DBA roles in order to start up or shut down an instance.

Shutdown

The databases should be shut down before system shutdowns, before full cold backups, and any time system operations require the system to be shut down.

UNIX Shutdown

For UNIX, several things need to be done to ensure shutdown occurs. The following procedure, for the HP-UX version of UNIX, demonstrates these steps:

1.        Log in as root.

2.        Edit the /etc/oratab file. Make the last field a Y for the $ORACLE_SID you want shut down.

3.        Add the following links to your /etc/init.d rcx.d files (where x is the run level).

ln -s /etc/init.d/Dbora /etc/init.d/rc0.d/K01Dbora
ln -s /etc/init.d/Dbora /etc/init.d/rc6.d/K01Dbora

You should alter the shutdown script ($ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbshut) to do a SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE. This backs out any uncommitted user transactions, logs them out, and then shuts down the database. If a normal SHUTDOWN is performed, the system politely waits for all users to log off of Oracle. If Joe is on vacation and left his terminal up in a form, you could have a long wait. The other shutdown, SHUTDOWN ABORT, should only be used for emergencies, as it stops the database just as it is, with operations pending or not. A SHUTDOWN ABORT will require a recovery on startup. The new command option , SHUTDOWN TRANSACTIONAL allows transactions to finish, then logs the user off and performs shutdown.

The preceding provides for automatic shutdown when the operating system shuts down. For a normal shutdown, execute the dbshut procedure for UNIX. If it has been created, the stop<sid>.cmd script is used to shut down an Oracle instance on NT.

To perform a manual shutdown on all systems, perform the following procedure:

1.        Log in to SVRMGR as INTERNAL; if on 9i, use the SQLPLUS /NOLOG and log in as either SYS or "/" using the AS SYSRemote DBA qualifier.

2.        Issue the appropriate SHUTDOWN command.

a.        No option means SHUTDOWN NORMAL.  The database waits for all users to disconnect, prohibits new connects, then closes and dismounts the database, then shuts down the instance.

b.        SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE.  Cancels current calls like a system interrupt, and closes and dismounts the database, then shuts down the instance. PMON gracefully shuts down the user processes. No instance recovery is required on startup.

c.        SHUTDOWN ABORT.  This doesn’t wait for anything. It shuts the database down now. Instance recovery will probably be required on startup. You should escalate to this by trying the other shutdowns first.

d.        SHUTDOWN TRANSACTIONAL. Like SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE, only it waits for transactions to complete, then boots off any users and shuts down the database.


See Code Depot for Full Scripts


This is an excerpt from Mike Ault, bestselling author of "Oracle 10g Grid and Real Application Clusters".

You can buy it direct from the publisher for 30%-off and get instant access to the code depot of Oracle tuning scripts.


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