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Using the GROUPING function
To handle these NULL issues, Oracle 8i introduces a new function called GROUPING.  Using a single column as its argument, Grouping returns 1 when it encounters a NULL value created by a ROLLUP or CUBE operation.
That is, if the NULL indicates the row is a subtotal, GROUPING returns a 1. Any other type of value, including a stored NULL, will return a 0.
GROUPING = 0 is a stored NULL not created by ROLLUP or CUBE
GROUPING = 1 is a NULL value created by ROLLUP or CUBE
Here is a simple example at aggregates employee data.
--------- --------- --------- --------- -------------
       10 CLERK              1       1300              0
       10 MANAGER            1       2450              0
       10 PRESIDENT          1       5000              0
       10                    1       1000              0
       10                    4       9750              1
<== Aggregate
       20 ANALYST            2       6000              0
       20 CLERK              2       1900              0
       20 MANAGER            1       2975              0
       20                    5      10875              1
       30 CLERK              1        950              0
       30 MANAGER            1       2850              0
       30 SALESMAN           4       5600              0
       30                    6       9400              1
<== Aggregate
                            15      30025              1
<== Aggregate
Here we see that the database has computed aggregate values for each department and also for the total result set.



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