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     Oracle transparent network substrate (TNS)

The Oracle Transparent Network Substrate (TNS) allows for simple interdatabase communications.  To implement TNS, Oracle has built a management layer over the standard network topology. 

To implement Oracle*Net, several Oracle files must be present on the server:

TSNAMES.ORA - This file defines incoming database requests.  It contains all database names (sid's) running on the processor.  When a new database is added to a box, /etc/tnsnames.ora must be updated.  This file also describes each domain name, with protocol, host, and port information. 

 

LISTNER.ORA - A list of destinations for outgoing database connections. When a new destination database is added to a box, it must be added to /etc/listener.ora, and the listener must be bounced.

In addition, TNS uses several server files to resolve host and service names.  On UNIX, these files include: 

/etc/HOSTS - lists all of the host names and their corresponding IP addresses.

 

/etc/SERVICES - lists the SQL*Net services and their IP addresses.

Now let’s take a look at how a connection is made: 

  • Step 1 – Here the request is made in the SQL with a database link name

  • Step 2 – The Oracle dictionary takes the link names and supplies the TNS service name, the USER ID and the password.

  • Step 3 – The service name is looked-up in the tnsnames.ora file, and the host name, port number and protocol are supplied.

  • Step 4 – The host name is passed to the /etc/hosts file where the host name is used to get the IP address.

  • Step 5 – The network packet is shipped to the remote database using the IP address port number and protocol

  • Step 6 – The remote listener intercepts the request and bequeaths a UNIX process.

  • Step 7 – The UNIX process connects to the remote database using the SID, User ID and password.

 

Application Connection with SQL*Net

 

Connections to remote databases can be made by specifying either "service names" or "connect strings".  Connect strings originated with SQL*Net version 1, where the full connection is specified.  In example 2 below, the "t:" means a TCP/IP connection, "host:" is the name of the remote processor, and "database:" is the name of the databases on that processor.

 

1.  Connect with a service name:  (SQL*Net version 2 & Oracle*Net)

 

      emp@my_db

 

2.  Connect with a server connect string:  (SQL*Net version 1)

 

      sqlplus /@t:host:database

 

These connect strings can be stored in the Oracle database dictionary for use by distributed SQL.  They are created with the  “create database link” command, and are stored in the Remote DBA_USER-DBLINKS meta table:

      create public database link ny_emp for ny_emp@t:myhost:mydatabase

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